Des éleveurs de porcs en agriculture biologique conduisent leurs lots charcutiers en plein air et ceci jusqu'à la montée dans le camion avant abattage (Isère). © MEURET Michel

Pig Genome Offers Insights into the Feistiest of Farm Animals

A new genomic analysis reveals some new, unexpected and potentially beneficial similarities between pigs and humans, along with a few distinct differences. The International Swine Genome Sequencing Consortium, launched in 2003 in Jouy-en-Josas and led by American and European researchers, conducted the most thorough genomic study yet conducted of the domestic pig and its wild boar counterparts. A report of the study appears in the journal Nature on 15 November 2012.

Updated on 03/06/2013
Published on 11/14/2012
Keywords: GENOME - pig

For 10,000 years pigs and humans have shared a close and complex relationship. From domestication to modern breeding practices, humans have shaped the genomes of domestic pigs. The pig and its cousin the wild boar have much in common with humans. They are world travelers. They’re adaptable, invasive, and often damage their own habitat. They are easy to seduce (with food) and susceptible to domestication, but when conditions allow, they revert to a feral lifestyle.
Scientists from an international consortium, including the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), compared the genome of a common farm pig, Sus scrofa domesticus, with those of ten wild boars – all from different parts of Europe and Asia. They also compared the pig genome with the human, mouse, dog, horse and cow genomes. This new analysis helps understand the genetic mechanisms that enable high-quality pork production, feed efficiency and resistance to disease. This knowledge can ultimately help producers breed high-quality swine, lower production costs and improve sustainability.

The team discovered new details of Sus scrofa evolution after the ancestors of the domestic pig, which most resembled today’s wild boars, first emerged in Southeast Asia and gradually migrated across Eurasia. Comparisons of Asian and European wild boars revealed significant genetic differences, the result of their separating from one another roughly one million years ago. They have been separated so long that the Asian and European lineages are almost sub-species now. The European and Asian wild boars lost a lot of genetic diversity about 20,000 years ago, likely as a result of a global glaciation event. Understanding the genes that shape the characteristics of pigs can point to how and why they were domesticated by humans. Perhaps it was their ability to eat stuff which is unpalatable to us humans.

Some gene families are undergoing relatively fast evolution in the domestic pig, with immune genes and (perhaps not surprisingly) olfactory genes quickly expanding. The pig has more unique olfactory genes than humans, mice or dogs, the researchers report. And while pigs can smell a world of things humans and many other animals can’t (think truffles), their sense of taste is somewhat impaired. Pigs have a high tolerance for eating things that have a lot of salt or that we would find repulsive by taste. Pigs have significantly fewer bitter taste receptor genes than humans, for example, and genes involved in perception of sweet and umami (which humans perceive as meaty) flavors are also different in pigs and humans, the researchers found.

This new analysis will also aid efforts to use the pig as a model for biomedical research and the improvement of human health. By also sequencing the genomes of another 48 pigs, researchers identified many more gene variants implicated in human disease, further supporting the pig as a valuable biomedical model. Some of the protein aberrations pigs share with humans are associated with obesity, diabetes, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease, the researchers report.
The study also has important implications for agriculture, particularly since the domestic pig still has an ancestor-like wild cousin on the loose. Unlike the domestic cow, whose ancestors, the aurochs, are now extinct, the porcine lineage has a lot of genetic diversity remaining. Genes that might be still in the wild could be used for breeding purposes today.

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Animal Genetics

Reference

Martien A. M. Groenen et al. Analyses of pig genomes provide insight into porcine demography and evolution. Nature, 15 November 2012. doi:10.1038/nature11622