Laboratorio de la Unidad MICALIS. © Bertrand NICOLAS - Inra, NICOLAS Bertrand

Asma: un efecto «salud» de las bacterias pulmonares

Investigadores del INRA* en colaboración con sus colegas de la Universidad de Gante (Bélgica) revelan por vez primera que algunas bacterias presentes en los pulmones pueden asociarse a efectos beneficiosos o perjudiciales sobre el asma. Estos trabajos, publicados el 3 de enero de 2017 en The Isme Journal, demuestran que la comunidad microbiana que existe en los pulmones (microbiota pulmonar) constituye aún una fuente inexplorada de bacterias o moléculas producidas por bacterias capaces de aliviar determinadas patologías respiratorias como el asma.

Actualización: 28/06/2017
Publicación: 04/01/2017
Palabras clave: bacterias - asma - pulmonares

El asma es una enfermedad respiratoria crónica para la que se dispone de tratamientos sintomáticos pero para la que no existe un enfoque curativo universal. Su incidencia ha aumentado en los últimos años, afectando a 1 adulto y 1 niño de cada 10 y constituyendo un verdadero problema de salud pública. El asma puede manifestarse a raíz de la exposición a alérgenos respiratorios como el polvo, los ácaros, los mohos, los pólenes, etc.
 

La descripción de la microbiota pulmonar es muy reciente, dado que durante mucho tiempo los pulmones han sido considerados órganos estériles. La influencia de la microbiota bacteriana pulmonar en el epitelio respiratorio, el desarrollo de la inmunidad o el asma severo son temas novedosos por los que muy pronto se interesaron los investigadores del INRA. Hasta hoy, ningún microorganismo residente en el pulmón había sido asociado a efectos beneficiosos o perjudiciales sobre la inmunidad pulmonar.
 

Bacterias pulmonares con efectos saludables

En este estudio los investigadores describieron los pulmones de dos tipos de ratones: unos criados en condiciones de esterilidad (axénicos, esto es, libres de bacterias) y otros, en un ambiente normal, en contacto con microorganismos. Los pulmones de los ratones axénicos presentaban diferencias respecto a los ratones normales en cuanto al nivel de expresión de ciertos genes. De este resultado se deduce que el ambiente en el que crecemos puede modificar las capacidades de defensa de nuestros pulmones.
 

La colonización bacteriana del pulmón se produce progresivamente desde que nacemos, acompañando la maduración de las defensas inmunitarias pulmonares. El periodo neonatal constituye por tanto un momento de intervención muy importante para prevenir o reducir el impacto de las enfermedades respiratorias infantiles. Para estudiar los efectos protectores (o no) de las bacterias del pulmón frente al asma, los investigadores cultivaron y caracterizaron cepas bacterianas aisladas a partir de los pulmones de ratones sin patologías. A partir de ahí se seleccionaron tres cepas de microorganismos que se administraron separadamente, por inoculación nasal, a crías de ratón antes de que estas pudieran inhalar los alérgenos de los ácaros.
 

Una de las cepas tuvo un efecto neutro (ningún efecto) sobre la patología, otra disminuyó los síntomas de la enfermedad en las crías de ratón y una tercera agravó el asma.
 

Este trabajo demuestra que las bacterias pulmonares constituyen una fuente aún inexplorada de bacterias o moléculas producidas por bacterias capaces de aliviar determinadas patologías respiratorias como el asma. Se ha presentado una patente relativa a las aplicaciones en materia de salud respiratoria de determinadas bacterias pulmonares.
 

Los investigadores prosiguen sus trabajos, especialmente para determinar si esas bacterias pulmonares pueden modificar la sensibilidad frente a las afecciones respiratorias que afectan a los recién nacidos.

*Han participado en estos trabajos investigadores de dos unidades del INRA de Jouy-en-Josas: la Unidad Mixta de Investigación «Microbiología de la alimentación al servicio de la salud» y la Unidad de investigación «Virología e Inmunología Moleculares»

Contacto
Contacto científico:

  • Muriel Thomas (+33 (0) 1 34 65 28 35 ) Unidad Mixta de Investigación «Microbiología de la alimentación al servicio de la salud»
Contacto de prensa:
Servicio de prensa del INRA (+33 (0) 1 42 75 91 86)
Departamento asociado:
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Animal Health
Centro asociado:
Jouy-en-Josas

Referencia

Aude Remot, Delphyne Descamps, Marie-Louise Noordine, Abdelhak Boukadiri, Elliot Mathieu, Véronique Robert, Sabine Riffault, Bart Lambrecht, Philippe Langella, Hamida Hammad and Muriel Thomas Bacteria isolated from lung modulate asthma susceptibility in mice, The ISME Journal advance online publication 3 January 2017; doi: 10.1038/ismej.2016.181