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Olas. © INRA, Foucaud-Scheunemann Catherine

¿Cómo el fitoplancton domina los océanos?

La fotosíntesis es un proceso único que, en el mundo de los seres vivos, ha permitido la colonización de tierras y océanos, por las plantas y por el fitoplancton respectivamente. Si los mecanismos de la fotosíntesis son muy conocidos en el caso de las plantas, los científicos apenas empiezan a comprender cómo el fitoplancton desarrolla una fotosíntesis. En el marco de una colaboración internacional1, investigadores del Laboratorio de fisiología celular & vegetal (CNRS/CEA/UGA/INRA)2, del Instituto de biología estructural (CNRS/CEA/UGA), del Laboratorio de estudios de materiales por microscopía avanzada (CEA/UGA)3, y del Laboratorio de fisiología membranosa y molecular del cloroplasto (CNRS/UPMC) proponen un modelo estructural del proceso fotosintético del fitoplancton, estudiando la diatomea Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Estos resultados han sido publicados el 20 de junio de 2017 en Nature communications.      

Actualización: 28/07/2017
Publicación: 20/06/2017

La fotosíntesis es un extraordinario mecanismo de producción de energía química a partir de energía luminosa. Este proceso resulta posible gracias a dos pequeñas fábricas fotoquímicas, llamadas fotosistemas I y II. Sin embargo, para que la fotosíntesis pueda tener lugar, estos dos fotosistemas no han de estar en contacto, a fin de evitar los cortocircuitos que disminuyen la fotosíntesis. En el caso de las plantas, están separados por unas estructuras (imagen A) que no parecen existir en el caso del fitoplancton (imagen B). Entonces, ¿cómo puede el fitoplancton ser el responsable de la mitad de la fotosíntesis del planeta?

Adaptando diferentes enfoques de imaginería celular de alta resolución aplicados a la diatomea Phaeodactylum tricornutum, los investigadores han logrado desarrollar un modelo 3D del sistema fotosintético de las diatomeas (imagen C). De este modo, han observado la existencia de micro-áreas que separan, como en el caso de las plantas, los dos fotosistemas, y que permiten una fotosíntesis aún más eficaz. El conjunto de estos resultados explica cómo las diatomeas producen cada día alrededor del 20% del oxígeno liberado en la Tierra y por qué dominan los océanos desde hace aproximadamente unos 100 millones de años.

Los investigadores siguen desarrollando este modelo 3D de la fotosíntesis de las diatomeas, que les permitirá comprender específicamente cómo estos organismos unicelulares se adaptaron a las consecuencias de cambios climáticos.      

Arriba. A la izquierda, hojas de planta. A la derecha, células de la diatomea Phaeodactylum tricornutum en cultivo.. © CNRS, Pascale Martinez
Arriba. A la izquierda, hojas de planta. A la derecha, células de la diatomea Phaeodactylum tricornutum en cultivo. © CNRS, Pascale Martinez

A – Microscopía electrónica de un cloroplasto de planta que muestra la organización interna con forma de « granas » (en amarillo, ricos en fotosistema II), y de « lamellae » (en verde, ricos en fotosistema I). Este no es el caso de la diatomea (imagen B).

B – Micrografía de una célula de P. tricornutum que muestra las membranas fotosintéticas sin granas. Su reconstrucción 3D (imagen C) pone de manifiesto la existencia de micro-áreas membranosas que permiten la separación física de los fotosistemas I (en el exterior, en verde) y II (en el interior, en amarillo). La flecha blanca indica las conexiones que unen las micro-áreas, garantizando así una eficacia fotosintética máxima.    

1Estos trabajos han sido realizados en colaboración con investigadores del ETH de Zúrich (Suiza) y de la Universidad de Konstanz (Alemania).
2Que forma parte del Instituto de Biociencias y Biotecnología de Grenoble (CEA_BIG).
3Que forma parte del Instituto de Nanociencias y de Criogenia (CEA_INAC).

Contacto
Contacto científico:

Contacto de prensa:
Servicio de prensa del INRA (33 (0)1 42 75 91 86), Prensa del CNRS - Alexiane Agullo (33 (0)1 44 96 43 90 )
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Plant Biology and Breeding
Centro asociado:
Auvergne Rhône-Alpes

Referencia

Serena Flori, Pierre-Henri Jouneau, Benjamin Bailleul, Benoit Gallet, Leandro F.Estrozi, Christine Moriscot, Olivier Bastien, Simona Eicke, Alexander Schober, Carolina Río Bártulos, Eric Maréchal, Peter G. Kroth, Dimitris Petroutsos, Samuel Zeeman, Cécile Breyton, Guy Schoehn, Denis Falconet, y Giovanni Finazzi. Plastid thylakoid architecture optimises photosynthesis in diatoms. Nature Communications, 20 de junio de 2017. DOI: 10.1038/NCOMMS15885.