Manzanos de sidra en flor. © Inra, NIORE Jacqueline

El manzano: obtenido un genoma de gran calidad

Un consorcio internacional, dirigido por el INRA y que reúne a investigadores en Francia, Italia, Alemania, Países Bajos y Sudáfrica, ha logrado obtener un genoma del manzano de gran calidad al combinar las últimas tecnologías de secuenciación del ADN y las de cartografía clásica. Este genoma permite que los investigadores tengan una visión sin precedentes de la composición y la evolución del genoma de un árbol, y abre la vía a nuevas perspectivas de creación de nuevas variedades, en particular para reducir el uso de pesticidas. Estos resultados han sido publicados enNature Geneticsel 5de junio de 2017.    

Actualización: 17/07/2017
Publicación: 06/06/2017

La manzana es uno de los frutos que más se consume en el mundo, y su producción anual se eleva a 84,6 millones de toneladas. Con el fin de poder seleccionar con mayor eficacia las nuevas variedades de manzano, resulta preciso poder acceder a un genoma de gran calidad. Esto permite realizar estudios genéticos y epigenéticos imprescindibles para la identificación de genes que estén implicados en, por ejemplo, el tamaño y el color de la fruta o su resistencia a diversas enfermedades. 

Basándose en un mapa genético con marcadores de alta densidad, el genoma ha podido ser ensamblado en 17 pseudo-moléculas, que representan los 17 cromosomas del manzano. Con un tamaño total de 649.3 Mb ensamblado en 280 fragmentos, este genoma consta de 42140 genes. 

 

Esquema que ilustra los 17 cromosomas del manzano. Los vínculos de colores entre los cromosomas representan las regiones duplicadas.. © Inra, Nicolas Daccord
Esquema que ilustra los 17 cromosomas del manzano. Los vínculos de colores entre los cromosomas representan las regiones duplicadas. © Inra, Nicolas Daccord

   

Reordenamientos identificados del genoma de la manzana que remontan a 21 millones de años

Este nuevo genoma ha permitido, por ejemplo, que los investigadores identifiquen reordenamientos importantes que se produjeron en el genoma de la manzana hace unos 21 millones de años. Estos cambios podrían deberse al surgimiento de las montañas de Tian Shan, en Kazakhstan, región de origen de la manzana. Estos acontecimientos geológicos y medioambientales pueden haber contribuido en la evolución contrastada del ancestro común del manzano y del peral.    

    

Estudios epigenéticos para comprender el desarrollo de la fruta

Con este genoma de gran calidad, los investigadores han logrado llevar a cabo estudios epigenéticos, es decir la transmisión de información independientemente de la secuencia del ADN. Esto les ha permitido evidenciar que los indicadores epigenéticos pueden influir en el desarrollo de la fruta a través de la expresión diferencial de los genes.   

De izquierda a derecha una fruta de «Golden Delicious», una fruta del doble haploide #13 cuyo genoma ha sido secuenciado, y una fruta del doble haploide #18, genéticamente idéntica al #13. La diferencia de tamaño de las frutas entre los dos dobles haploides se debe probablemente a las diferencias epigenéticas identificadas en torno a los genes clave implicados en el desarrollo de la fruta.. © Inra, Jean-Marc Celton
De izquierda a derecha una fruta de «Golden Delicious», una fruta del doble haploide #13 cuyo genoma ha sido secuenciado, y una fruta del doble haploide #18, genéticamente idéntica al #13. La diferencia de tamaño de las frutas entre los dos dobles haploides se debe probablemente a las diferencias epigenéticas identificadas en torno a los genes clave implicados en el desarrollo de la fruta. © Inra, Jean-Marc Celton

  

Este genoma es una herramienta imprescindible para toda la comunidad que trabaja en la mejora de la manzana y, desde una perspectiva más amplia, para adquirir conocimientos relativos a la evolución y a la regulación del genoma. Asimismo, permitirá acelerar la creación de nuevas variedades más resistentes, con las que reducir el uso de pesticidas, mejorar la calidad de las manzanas o adaptarse a los problemas y a los desafíos del medio ambiente y del cambio climático.    

 

Para más información:

Página web dedicada al genoma de la manzana: https://iris.angers.inra.fr/gddh13/
Twitter: @AppleGenome

Contacto
Contacto científico:

  • Etienne Bucher (+33 (0) 2 41 22 56 99) Instituto de Investigación de Horticultura y Simientes (INRA – AgroCampus Oeste – Universidad de Angers)
Contacto de prensa:
Servicio de prensa del INRA (+33 (0) 1 42 75 91 86)
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Plant Biology and Breeding
Centro asociado:
Angers-Nantes

Referencia

Nicolas Daccord, Jean-Marc Celton, Gareth Linsmith, Claude Becker, Nathalie Choisne, Elio Schijlen, Henri van de Geest, Luca Bianco, Diego Micheletti, Riccardo Velasco, Erica Adele Di Pierro, Jérôme Gouzy, D Jasper G Rees, Philippe Guérif, Hélène Muranty, Charles-Eric Durel, François Laurens, Yves Lespinasse, Sylvain Gaillard, Sébastien Aubourg, Hadi Quesneville, Detlef Weigel, Eric van de Weg, Michela Troggio and Etienne Bucher, High quality de novo assembly of the apple genome and methylome dynamics of early fruit development. Nature Genetics (2017) doi:10.1038/ng.3886