Pan. © Bertrand NICOLAS - Inra, NICOLAS Bertrand

La elafina: ¿proteína natural contra la intolerancia al gluten?

Científicos del INRA y del INSERM, en colaboración con científicos de la Universidad McMaster (Canadá) y la École Polytechnique Fédérale de Zurich (Suiza), han demostrado que la proteína humana elafina juega un papel clave en la protección contra la reacción inflamatoria característica de la enfermedad celíaca (intolerancia al gluten). Asimismo, han desarrollado una bacteria probiótica capaz de liberar esta proteína en las mucosas intestinales de los ratones. Este hallazgo, publicado en línea en el American Journal of Gastroenterology el 8 de abril de 2014, abre el camino a nuevas estrategias para el tratamiento de la intolerancia al gluten.

Actualización: 22/06/2017
Publicación: 07/04/2014
Palabras clave: GLUTEN - elafina - intolerancia

La enfermedad celíaca es una patología autoinmune que se manifiesta en individuos genéticamente predispuestos a la intolerancia al gluten. Las personas afectadas no disponen de las enzimas necesarias para degradar correctamente el gluten durante la digestión. Así, los elementos resultantes de la anormal descomposición del gluten provocan una reacción inflamatoria que, con el tiempo, puede llevar a la eliminación progresiva de las vellosidades intestinales esenciales para la absorción de nutrientes. Las personas afectadas sufren, entre otros, dolores abdominales crónicos (diarreas, calambres, etc.) y están predispuestos a padecer ciertos tipos de cáncer (intestino delgado, linfoma). La prevalencia de la enfermedad se estima entre 1/500 y 1/300 y no existe actualmente en el mercado ningún tratamiento curativo: la única solución es una dieta sin gluten de por vida.
 

Investigadores del INRA y del INSERM, junto a sus colegas canadienses y suizos, han demostrado que la elafina, una proteína con propiedades antiinflamatorias, es mucho menos abundante en los pacientes con enfermedad celíaca que en las personas sanas. Además, han descubierto que esta proteína es capaz de interactuar con la proteína responsable de la anormal descomposición del gluten (transglutaminasa-2), inhibiendo una etapa clave de dicha descomposición.
 

En el marco de recientes investigaciones sobre las enfermedades inflamatorias del intestino (EII), como la enfermedad de Crohn o la colitis ulcerosa, estos mismos equipos del INRA y del INSERM han desarrollado una cepa recombinante de la bacteria Lactococcus lactisque expresa y libera elafina. La utilización de esta cepa permite la producción específica y localizada de elafina, presente también, aunque en menor cantidad, en personas con EII. Se trata de una estrategia reciente e innovadora, cuyos primeros resultados preclínicos han abierto el camino a nuevas terapias para las EII, para las que hoy solo se dispone de tratamientos paliativos.
 

En el presente estudio, los científicos administraron esta bacteria a ratones intolerantes al gluten y observaron que la elafina liberada por el probiótico disminuía significativamente la reacción inflamatoria.
 

Esta estrategia, para la que el INRA presentó una solicitud de patente en mayo de 2013, abre perspectivas prometedoras para el tratamiento de la enfermedad celíaca y la intolerancia al gluten en general. El siguiente paso consistirá en definir el mecanismo que explica los efectos positivos de la elafina en la enfermedad celíaca y en identificar las bacterias que producen naturalmente proteínas con propiedades antiinflamatorias similares a la elafina.

Contacto
Contacto científico:

  • Philippe Langella (+33 (0) 1 34 65 20 70 ) Microbiología de la alimentación al servicio de la salud (Micalis)
Contacto de prensa:
Servicio de prensa del INRA (+33 (0) 1 42 75 91 86)
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Microbiology and the Food Chain
Centro asociado:
Jouy-en-Josas

Referencia

Heather J. Galipeau, Michelle Wiepjes, Jean-Paul Motta, Jessica D. Schulz, Jennifer Jury, Jane M. Natividad, Ines Pinto-Sanchez, Daniel Sinclair, Perrine Rousset, Rebeca Martin-Rosique, Luis Bermudez-Humaran, Jean Christophe Leroux, Joseph Murray, Edgardo Smecuol, Julio C. Bai, Nathalie Vergnolle, Philippe Langella and Elena F. Verdu. Novel Role of the Serine Protease Inhibitor Elafin in Gluten-Related Disorders. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 8 de abril de 2014. DOI : 10.1038/ajg.2014.48

 Solicitud de patente US61/827074 "TREATMENT OF GLUTEN-ASSOCIATED DISORDERS"