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Verrerie de laboratoire. Laboratoire confiné. Unité de biologie et gestion des risques en agriculture (BIOGER) à Grignon.. © Bertrand NICOLAS - Inra, NICOLAS Bertrand

La transmisión de la enfermedad de Creutzfeldt-Jakob es posible por vía sanguínea

La enfermedad de Creutzfeldt-Jakob (ECJ) es una patología de baja incidencia que resulta mortal para el ser humano. Investigadores del INRA y de la Escuela Nacional Veterinaria de Toulouse, en colaboración con socios europeos, establecieron por primera vez la presencia de infecciosidad1 en la sangre de pacientes con las formas esporádica y nueva variante de ECJ. Es primordial continuar las investigaciones. No obstante, los resultados demuestran que existe un riesgo de transmisión de estas formas de ECJ por vía transfusional y mediante medicamentos hemoderivados. Dichos resultados se han publicado en la revista especializada Emerging Infectious Diseases el 11 de diciembre de 2013.

Actualización: 22/06/2017
Publicación: 12/12/2013

La enfermedad de Creutzfeldt-Jakob (ECJ) es una patología neurodegenerativa provocada por la acumulación de un agente infeccioso de naturaleza proteica, llamado prión, en los tejidos de los individuos enfermos. Existen distintas formas de esta enfermedad en el ser humano: una forma familiar (de origen genético), una forma esporádica (de origen desconocido) y una forma llamadavariante, aparecida en 1996 y provocada por la exposición alimentaria al agente responsable de la encefalopatía espongiforme bovina (EEB o «enfermedad de la vaca loca»).

Varios países (Francia, el Reino Unido, Estados Unidos y Japón, entre otros) informaron que la utilización de hormonas de crecimiento o de implantes de meninges, provenientes de donantes enfermos o que estaban incubando la enfermedad, fueron responsables de la transmisión interhumana de la ECJ. En el Reino Unido, a raíz de investigaciones epidemiológicas, se sospecha que las transfusiones sanguíneas son responsables de al menos cuatro casos de transmisión.

Resultado inédito: la sangre de los enfermos de ECJ es portadora de infecciosidad

Un equipo de científicos del INRA y de la Escuela Nacional Veterinaria de Toulouse, en colaboración con socios europeos, se interesó por la presencia potencial y la distribución de los agentes responsables de ECJ (formas esporádica y variante) en la sangre. Mediante bioensayos se pudo cuantificar el nivel de infecciosidad relacionado con distintas fracciones sanguíneas provenientes de individuos con ECJ. Con este propósito, se inocularon fracciones sanguíneas de personas enfermas en el cerebro de ratones modelo. Tanto las células sanguíneas (glóbulos blancos y rojos) como el plasma provenientes de un individuo con la variante de ECJ resultaron portadores de infecciosidad. En el caso de ECJ esporádica, fue posible detectar la presencia de infecciosidad en el plasma de dos de los cuatro casos analizados.

Los resultados demuestran por primera vez la presencia de infecciosidad en la sangre de enfermos de ECJ y confirman la existencia de un riesgo de transmisión de esta enfermedad por vía transfusional o por medicamentos hemoderivados. Asimismo, este trabajo indica que las fracciones sanguíneas infecciosas, al igual que el nivel de infecciosidad, son de la misma naturaleza en el hombre y en los modelos animales de prionopatías. El interés de dichos modelos se confirma para proseguir la evaluación del riesgo relacionado con los priones en materia de salud pública.

Se están llevando a cabo estudios complementarios con un mayor número de casos de ECJ. Los resultados comunicados en este estudio modifican lo que se sabía sobre la naturaleza infecciosa de la sangre de personas con ECJ (formas esporádica y variante). Dichos resultados permitirán obtener una evaluación cuantitativa más precisa de los riesgos de transmisión interindividual de las distintas formas de ECJ por vía sanguínea.

1 La infecciosidad es la capacidad para transmitir una infección. El nivel de infecciosidad puede ser más o menos elevado.

Contacto
Contacto científico:

  • Olivier ANDREOLETTI (+33 (0) 5 61 19 38 95) Unidad Mixta de Investigación «Interacciones Huéspedes – Agentes Patógenos» INRA-ENVT
Contacto de prensa:
Servicio de prensa del INRA (+33 (0) 1 42 75 91 86)
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Animal Health
Centro asociado:
Occitanie-Toulouse

Referencia

Jean Yves Douet, Saima Zafar, Armand Perret-Liaudet, Caroline Lacroux, Séverine Lugan, Naima Aron, Herve Cassard, Claudia Ponto, Fabien Corbière, Juan Maria Torres, Inga Zerr, and Olivier Andreoletti. Detection of Infectivity in Blood of Persons with Variant and Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11 de diciembre de 2013. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2001.130353