Preparación de extractos de algas. © Studio FUN IMAGES, Laurent Rannou

Algas marinas para reducir el uso de antibióticos en la ganadería

En el marco de una colaboración con el grupo Olmix, investigadores del INRA han demostrado que un compuesto extraído de algas verdes inhibe in vitro el crecimiento de bacterias patógenas y estimula la producción de mediadores de la inmunidad por parte de células epiteliales intestinales. Este tipo de preparación se podría utilizar en la alimentación ganadera para mejorar la resistencia de los animales a las infecciones y reducir de esta manera el uso de antibióticos. Los resultados se publicaron el 8 de marzo de 2016 en Journal of Applied Phycology.

Actualización: 30/06/2017
Publicación: 10/03/2016

Las algas marinas son plantas acuáticas clorofílicas que se fijan en los fondos marinos. Según la naturaleza de sus pigmentos se pueden clasificar en tres grupos: las pardas (feofíceas), las rojas (rodófíceas) y las verdes (clorófíceas o ulvales). La pared celular de dichas algas, rica en polisacáridos sulfatados, posee propiedades fisicoquímicas y biológicas con posibles aplicaciones en la industria farmacéutica y biomédica, en cosmetología, en agricultura, o como aditivos para la alimentación humana y animal.
 
Creado en 1995, el grupo Olmix se especializa en el aprovechamiento de las algas verdes en Bretaña, desde la cosecha hasta la transformación en productos naturales e innovadores para los sectores tanto de la nutrición como de la salud vegetal, animal y humana. El grupo preparó, a partir de la alga verde marina Ulva armoricana cosechada en Bretaña, un extracto de polisacáridos sulfatados llamado MSP (marine sulfated polysaccharides) con el propósito de identificar moléculas bioactivas benéficas. En el marco de una colaboración científica entre Olmix y la Unidad Mixta de Investigación de Infectología y Salud Pública del centro INRA de Val de Loire, se estudió un MSP in vitro para evaluar su capacidad para inhibir el crecimiento de bacterias y estimular la producción de mediadores de la inmunidad. El poder inhibidor del crecimiento bacteriano del MSP se observó en un conjunto de 42 cepas de bacterias patógenas aisladas directamente de animales de granja o de su entorno. Entre ellas, Pasteurella multocida, Manheimia haemolytica, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Staphylococcus aureus y Streptococcus suis presentaron una sensibilidad a la acción del MSP y resultaron más sensibles que Salmonella o E. coli. Además, el MSP indujo el incremento de la producción de citocinas, mediadoras de la respuesta inmunitaria, en un sistema in vitro de células epiteliales intestinales porcinas diferenciadas, revelando la posible acción estimuladora de la inmunidad intestinal por parte del MSP.
 
Las algas marinas constituyen una fuente de polisacáridos sulfatados que se podría utilizar en la alimentación ganadera para inhibir el desarrollo de agentes patógenos y estimular la respuesta inmunitaria. De este modo, se podría mejorar la resistencia de los animales a las infecciones y reducir el uso de antibióticos en el ámbito ganadero.
 
A largo plazo, el INRA y Olmix quisieran contar con materias primas activas que se pudieran incorporar a la alimentación del ganado sin efectos adversos para contribuir a preservar la salud y el confort digestivo de los animales. Estos métodos complementarios podrían reducir la incidencia de situaciones que requieran enfoques terapéuticos y, por lo tanto, disminuir el uso de antibióticos.

Cosecha de lechuga de mar en la costa de Bretaña© Studio FUN IMAGES, Laurent Rannou. © Studio FUN IMAGES, Laurent Rannou
Cosecha de lechuga de mar en la costa de Bretaña© Studio FUN IMAGES, Laurent Rannou © Studio FUN IMAGES, Laurent Rannou

Contacto
Contacto científico:

  • El Mostafa Berri (+33 (0) 2 47 42 73 19) Unidad de Infectología y Salud Pública (INRA, Universidad François Rabelais de Tours)
Contacto de prensa:
Servicio de Prensa INRA (+33 (0) 1 42 75 91 86), Laurence Guillevic, Olmix (+33 (0) 2 97 38 81 03)
Departamento asociado:
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Animal Health
Centro asociado:
Val de Loire

REFERENCIA

Marine sulfated polysaccharides extract of Ulva armoricana green algae exhibits an antimicrobial activity and stimulates cytokine expression by intestinal epithelial cells. Mustapha Berri, Cindy Slugocki, Michel Olivier, Emmanuelle Helloin, Isabelle Jacques, Henri Salmon, Hervé Demais, Matthieu Le Goff, Pi Nyvall Collen. Journal of Applied Phycology, le 8 mars 2016.