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Interior de un macrocosmos del Écotron con 4 testigos de pradera.. © Inra, C. Picon-Cochard

Frente a sequías y olas de calor extremas, las praderas se recuperan mejor si en su atmósfera abunda el dióxido de carbono

Los fenómenos climáticos extremos, como las olas de calor o las sequías, amenazan con alterar la capacidad de captura y almacenamiento de carbono de los ecosistemas terrestres. Gracias a un gran experimento llevado a cabo por el Écotron (CNRS) de Montpellier en un pasto permanente de montaña media, unos investigadores del INRA y del CNRS han demostrado por primera vez que la abundancia de dióxido de carbono de la atmósfera mejora la recuperación de la pradera tras fenómenos climáticos extremos, y decelera los efectos negativos del estrés hídrico. Estos estudios se han publicado en «PNAS» y revelan la importancia de tener en cuenta el conjunto de las interacciones en el estudio de los impactos del cambio climático.

Actualización: 08/06/2017
Publicación: 23/05/2016

Extracción de bloques de prado en montaña media de la región francesa de Auvernia.© Hubert Raguet © Hubert Raguet
Extracción de bloques de prado en montaña media de la región francesa de Auvernia.© Hubert Raguet © Hubert Raguet
Durante el siglo XXI, el cambio climático causará un aumento de la frecuencia y la gravedad de fenómenos climáticos extremos (sequías y olas de calor) en Francia, que repercutirán negativamente en los ecosistemas, sobre todo en las praderas, que son sensibles a la sequía y que alimentan al ganado productor de leche y carne. También podrán dañar el suelo, al reducir su contenido en materia orgánica rica en carbono.

El aumento de CO2 en la atmósfera puede limitar estos riesgos climáticos, puesto que es el sustrato de la fotosíntesis vegetal y normalmente favorece la tolerancia a la sequía de las plantas y la acumulación de materia orgánica en el suelo. Hasta ahora, no se sabía si esos efectos positivos del CO2 podían persistir o no en caso de fenómeno climático extremo. Por primera vez, se ha podido responder a esa pregunta gracias a un experimento llevado a cabo por equipos del INRA y del CNRS en el Écotron de Montpellier. Se han extraído 48 bloques de prado de 1 m2 y 60 m de profundidad en montaña media de la región francesa de Auvernia. Se los ha sometido a un clima como el que se prevé a partir de 2050, más caluroso y seco, así como a un aumento de la concentración atmosférica en CO2 combinada (o no) con una ola de calor y una sequía extrema.
Durante estos fenómenos, la abundancia de CO2 atmosférico ha decelerado los efectos negativos del estrés hídrico y térmico manteniendo las funciones fisiológicas de las plantas. También ha estimulado el crecimiento de las raíces para que puedan conseguir más agua y nutrientes del suelo, lo que ha acelerado el rebrote de la pradera desde el final de los fenómenos climáticos.
En este experimento, el aumento del CO2 atmosférico ha compensado por completo los impactos negativos de la sequía y la ola de calor en la asimilación neta de carbono de la pradera. Este estudio demuestra la importancia de tener en cuenta el conjunto de las interacciones en el análisis de los impactos del cambio climático. También indica que el incremento de CO2 aumenta la capacidad de recuperación de la materia orgánica del suelo, de los ecosistemas de pradera y del ganado que depende de un evento climático extremo como una ola de calor o una sequía, pero no permite concluir sobre los riesgos cumulativos de dichos extremos climáticos. Estos riesgos cumulativos deben evaluarse mediante procesos de modelización..

Interior de un macrocosmos del Écotron con 4 testigos de pradera.© INRA, C. Picon-Cochard. © Inra, C. Picon-Cochard
Interior de un macrocosmos del Écotron con 4 testigos de pradera.© INRA, C. Picon-Cochard © Inra, C. Picon-Cochard

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Forest, Grassland and Freshwater Ecology
Centro asociado:
Auvergne Rhône-Alpes

REFERENCIA

Roy J, Picon-Cochard C, Augusti A, Benot ML, Thiery L, Darsonville O, Landais D, Piel C, Defossez M, Devidal S, Escape C, Ravel O, Fromin N, Volaire F, Milcu A, Bahn M, Soussana J-F. 2016. Elevated CO2 maintains grassland net carbon uptake under a future heat and drought extreme. PNAS, 16 mai 2016. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1524527113