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Cesta de frutas (manzanas, nectarinas, fresas) ©INRA, Francis Fort. © Inra, FORT Francis

Un original estudio sobre individuos con buena salud: impacto de una alimentación rica en fibra en la microbiota intestinal

La riqueza y la estabilidad de nuestra microbiota intestinal, es decir el conjunto de bacterias que albergamos en nuestro tubo digestivo, son parámetros importantes para el buen funcionamiento de esta simbiosis que constituyen el Hombre y su ecosistema intestinal. Los investigadores del INRA, en colaboración con el CNRH Ródano-Alpes, han realizado un estudio con sujetos delgados y con buena salud, mediante un aporte controlado de fibra. Los resultados muestran que las microbiotas más ricas, las que presentan la mayor diversidad de especies de bacterias, se dan en individuos que consumen la mayor diversidad de alimentos ricos en fibra, y son también las más estables.

Actualización: 09/06/2017
Publicación: 11/09/2015

Los sujetos, delgados y con buena salud, que residen en la misma zona geográfica de Francia, se sometieron a un seguimiento de 8 semanas en el Centro de Investigación en Nutrición Humana de Ródano-Alpes, en Grenoble. Dentro de un régimen omnívoro equilibrado, recibieron menús preparados para el estudio que proporcionan un total de 10 g. o de 40 g. de fibra al día. Entre los dos regímenes de 10 g. y de 40 g. seguidos durante 5 días, los sujetos mantuvieron su régimen habitual. Por otra parte, los sujetos rellenaron un cuestionario en el que detallaron su consumo preciso de frutas, verduras y demás fuentes de fibra.
Los investigadores del INRA han realizado un análisis completo de la microbiota, con el objetivo de medir su estructura y su actividad. El análisis de actividad (metatranscriptómica) ha revelado que un aporte diario de 40 g. de fibra durante únicamente 5 días (en relación con un aporte de 10 g.) aumenta sobre todo la expresión de Glucósido Hidrolasas (GH), genes responsables de la metabolización de la fibra, y disminuye la expresión de GH implicados en la degradación de las mucinas, polímeros protectores producidos por el huésped. Dicho de otro modo, un aumento del aporte de fibra conduce a un aumento de la degradación de las fibras que proporcionan compuestos benéficos, así como a una protección de la mucosidad intestinal, una barrera física que desempeña un papel clave en nuestras defensas naturales. Por otra parte, cuanto más diversa sea la microbiota, más estable será.  
Las repercusiones de estos estudios pueden contemplarse desde el punto de vista de la nutrición personalizada, mediante recomendaciones nutricionales adaptadas a la riqueza de la microbiota de cada uno. Por ejemplo, en el caso de individuos con una microbiota relativamente pobre, un aporte alimentario de fibras variadas podría mejorarla. Por otra parte, en cuanto a individuos que posean una microbiota rica, el desafío al que se enfrentan los científicos es el de comprender cómo mantener esta riqueza a lo largo de la vida de estos sujetos, a pesar de la incidencia de factores medioambientales que sabemos disminuyen la biodiversidad de la microbiota: la toma de antibióticos, la inflamación, la enfermedad, el ganar peso o el envejecimiento.  

Un estudio original en dos puntos :

Muy pocos estudios muestran interés por el impacto del régimen alimentario en la microbiota de individuos sanos y delgados, mientras que los trabajos clásicos relativos a la fibra se centran ante todo en mostrar el impacto de una molécula en un componente (género o especie) de la microbiota.
Primera utilización de la plataforma GitHub por biólogos franceses; esta plataforma permite compartir todos los datos del estudio, así como los códigos informáticos empleados para realizar los análisis bioinformáticos y estadísticos, que permiten una trazabilidad completa de estos trabajos.

Contacto
Contacto científico:

  • Marion Leclerc (+33 (0) 1 34 65 24 64) Microbiología de la alimentación al servicio de la salud
Contacto de prensa:
Servicio de prensa del INRA (+33 (0) 1 42 75 91 86)
Departamento asociado:
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Microbiology and the Food Chain
Centro asociado:
Jouy-en-Josas

REFERENCIA

Gut microbiota richness promotes its stability upon increased dietary fibre intake in healthy adults. Julien Tap, Jean-Pierre Furet, Martine Bensaada, Catherine Philippe, Hubert Roth, Sylvie Rabot, Omar Lakhdari, Vincent Lombard, Bernard Henrissat, Gérard Corthier, Eric Fontaine, Joël Doré et Marion Leclerc – Environmental Microbiology, en ligne le 3 septembre 2015. DOI: 10.1111/1462-2920.13006 

Para más información acerca del CNRH Ródano-Alpes : https://www.crnh-rhone-alpes.fr