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La microbiota intestinal, agente indispensable para la regulación del hierro en nuestro organismo

¿Actúan las bacterias del intestino sobre el metabolismo del hierro, elemento esencial para la buena salud del organismo? Por primera vez, equipos del INRA y el INSERM, en colaboración con el CNRS, han demostrado cómo las bacterias modifican la capacidad de distribución y almacenamiento del hierro en las células intestinales. La microbiota puede considerarse como un nuevo regulador fisiopatológico de la absorción intestinal de este mineral. Estos trabajos han sido publicados en la edición electrónica de The Faseb Journal del 15 de septiembre de 2015.

Actualización: 30/06/2017
Publicación: 15/09/2015

El hierro es un elemento vital del que el organismo no puede prescindir. Su regulación y su correcto control en el organismo son la garantía de una buena salud. Si bien un déficit de hierro es perjudicial, un exceso del mismo constituye también un riesgo para la salud. Actualmente se debaten numerosas cuestiones sociales, entre otras, la eficacia y la necesidad de aportar suplementos de hierro a la dieta humana.

En el intestino, las bacterias (que forman la microbiota) y las células intestinales viven en simbiosis y todas necesitan hierro para sobrevivir. La única puerta de entrada del hierro alimentario en el organismo es el intestino. Cuando el organismo necesita hierro, las células intestinales facilitan su absorción, y cuando esta necesidad disminuye, dichas células reducen su capacidad de absorción. Estos finos mecanismos de regulación responden además a una hormona llamada hepcidina, que fue descubierta por un equipo del INSERM hace varios años.
 
Investigadores del INRA y el INSERM, en colaboración con el CNRS, han estudiado el efecto de la microbiota en la absorción del hierro, y ello, independientemente de los efectos hormonales. Para ello compararon animales (roedores) desprovistos de microbiota intestinal (denominados «axénicos») con animales cuya microbiota estuvo sometida a control. En ausencia de microbiota, las células intestinales presentan stocks de hierro muy pequeños y los sistemas de transporte al organismo son poco abundantes. En cambio, en cuanto la microbiota se instala en el intestino, las células intestinales adquieren una gran capacidad de almacenar hierro (en forma de ferritina) y favorecen su transporte al organismo (aumento de la ferroportina). De este modo, en presencia de bacterias de la microbiota se produce una adaptación de las células intestinales ligada a su capacidad de distribuir y almacenar este mineral.
 
El descubrimiento de esta nueva vía de control del metabolismo del hierro va a permitir controlar mejor los aportes en hierro y quizás también, mejorar la comprensión de las anomalías asociadas a este mineral en enfermedades que implican desequilibrios de la microbiota conocidos como «disbiosis».

Contacto
Contacto científico:

  • Muriel Thomas (+33 (0) 1 34 65 28 35) Instituto Microbiología de la alimentación al servicio de la salud
  • Gaël Nicolas (+33 (0) 1 57 27 73 39) Centro de investigación sobre la inflamación (INSERM, CNRS, Universidad Paris Diderot 7)
  • Sophie Vaulont (+33 (0) 1 44 41 24 47 ) Instituto Cochin (INSERM, CNRS, Universidad Paris Descartes)
Contacto de prensa:
Servicio de prensa del INRA (+33 (0) 1 42 75 91 86)
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Nutrition, Chemical Food Safety and Consumer Behaviour
Centro asociado:
Jouy-en-Josas

REFERENCIA

Jean-Christophe Deschemin, Marie-Louise Noordine, Aude Remot, Alexandra Willemetz, Clément Afif, François Canonne-Hergaux, Philippe Langella, Zoubida Karim, Sophie Vaulont, Muriel Thomas, Gaël Nicolas.The microbiota shifts the iron sensing of intestinal cells. January 2016 print issue of The FASEB Journal.
doi: 10.1096/fj.15-276840 fj.15-276840