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Asnos en Aveyron (Francia). © Inra, PAILLARD Gérard

Novedad mundial para salvar razas de asnos salvajes y domésticos en peligro de extinción

Unos investigadores del INRA1, en colaboración con el IFCE (Instituto Francés del Caballo y de la Equitación), el CNRS (Centro Nacional para la Investigación Científica) y la Universidad François Rabelais de Tours, acaban de desarrollar por primera vez una técnica de recogida in vivo de ovocitos de asnas que puede utilizarse rutinariamente. También han estudiado la cronología de la maduración in vitro de los ovocitos. Sus estudios se han publicado en «Theriogenology» y constituyen avances cruciales en la conservación del patrimonio genético de las razas de asnos en peligro de extinción.

Actualización: 08/06/2017
Publicación: 14/03/2016
Palabras clave: ASNO - OVOCITO - RAZA

Ocho ovocitos de asnas observados en aumento 50x.© INRA, Cécile Douet, PRC. © Inra, Cécile Douet, PRC
Ocho ovocitos de asnas observados en aumento 50x.© INRA, Cécile Douet, PRC © Inra, Cécile Douet, PRC
La mayoría de las razas de asnos salvajes están en peligro de extinción, como el asno salvaje asiático (Equus hemionus) o el africano (Equus asinus africanus), y recogidas en la Lista Roja de la Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (UICN). Muchas razas de asnos domésticos están amenazadas en el mundo. En Francia, cinco de cada siete razas de asnos están en peligro de extinción, con menos de 100 hembras en edad reproductiva en 2015 (23 asnas borbonesas, 34 Grand Noir du Berry, 40 normandas, 43 provenzales y 88 Cotentin); dos razas están en peligro de extinción con menos de 300 hembras en edad reproductiva en 2015 (136 asnas de los Pirineos, 296 garañones de Poitou)2

Por todo ello, la preservación de este patrimonio genético urge y podría atajarse con la criopreservación del esperma, los ovocitos y los embriones. La criopreservación de los ovocitos requiere que sean recogidos en hembras vivas. La de los embriones requiere que sean producidos en grandes cantidades por hembras, lo que es imposible in vivo, ya que estos animales solo producen un embrión por cada ciclo de 26 días. Esta producción en grandes cantidades es posible in vitro, pero es necesario que los ovocitos sean recogidos en hembras vivas, por lo que dicha colecta es una etapa ineludible para la conservación del patrimonio hembra.

El personal de la plataforma equina de la UEPAO1 del INRA ha conseguido desarrollar por primera vez una técnica de recogida de ovocitos en asnas vivas por punción folicular transvaginal mediante ecografía, de conformidad con el Comité de Ética en Experimentación Animal del Valle del Loira. En total, se han recogido 92 ovocitos en 22 punciones, es decir, 4,2 ovocitos de media por asna. Los investigadores de la unidad PRC1 han adaptado una técnica de maduración in vitro de ovocitos de yegua a los ovocitos de asna, lo que permite estudiar por primera vez la cronología de la maduración de los ovocitos de asnas. Se ha podido observar que es posible obtener un 44 % de ovocitos de asnas maduras después de 34 horas de cultivo in vitro.
Por todo ello, estos estudios han permitido crear una técnica de recogida in vivo de ovocitos de asnas por punción folicular mediante ecografía y llevar a cabo su maduración in vitro: dos etapas cruciales en la conservación del patrimonio genético de las especies en peligro de extinción. Actualmente, los estudios se realizan mediante fecundación in vitro para conseguir embriones aptos para la congelación o para implantárselos a una hembra receptora que los gestará..

Cuatro asnas de raza normanda de la plataforma equina de la UEPAO.© INRA, Fabrice Reigner. © Inra, Fabrice Reigner
Cuatro asnas de raza normanda de la plataforma equina de la UEPAO.© INRA, Fabrice Reigner © Inra, Fabrice Reigner
               

         

1 En estos estudios trabajan la Unidad Experimental de Fisiología Animal de L’Orfrasière del INRA (UEPAO) y la Unidad Mixta de Investigación de Fisiología de la Reproducción y de los Comportamientos (PRC – INRA, CNRS, IFCE, Universidad François Rabelais de Tours) del Centro INRA Valle del Loira en Nouzilly. Estas investigaciones han sido financiadas por el Instituto Francés del Caballo y de la Equitación (IFCE) y el proyecto CRB-Anim (Centro de Recursos Biológicos Animales, ANR-11-INBS-0003) en el marco del programa «Inversiones de futuro».
2 Fuente: IFCE.

Contacto
Contacto científico:

  • Ghylène Goudet (+33 (0) 2 47 42 79 41) Fisiología de la Reproducción y de los Comportamientos (INRA, CNRS, Universidad François Rabelais de Tours, Instituto Francés del Caballo y de la Equitación)
  • Michèle Magistrini (+33 (0) 2 47 42 79 04) Unidad de Fisiología de la Reproducción y de los Comportamientos (INRA, CNRS, Universidad François Rabelais de Tours, Instituto Francés del Caballo y de la Equitación)
  • Fabrice Reigner (+33 (0) 2 47 42 78 17) Unidad Experimental de Fisiología Animal de L’Orfrasière.
Contacto de prensa:
Servicio de Prensa del INRA (+33 (0) 1 42 75 91 86)
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Animal Physiology and Livestock Systems
Centro asociado:
Val de Loire