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Las agujas del pino constituyen el alimento preferido de la oruga de la procesionaria del pino.. © Inra, ROQUES Alain

Procesionaria del pino: los árboles ornamentales son elementos clave en el avance de las plagas

La procesionaria del pino es un insecto forestal que se está expandiendo desde el sur al norte de Francia bajo los efectos del cambio climático. Dicho insecto plantea numerosos problemas fitosanitarios y de salud pública. Investigadores del INRA han estudiado su dispersión en una zona de grandes cultivos (La Beauce) que, pese a carecer de bosques, no ha conseguido frenar el avance de este insecto. Por primera vez, estos trabajos han demostrado el papel fundamental de los árboles «fuera de bosque»* en la dispersión de las plagas forestales, abriendo así nuevas perspectivas en materia de gestión del paisaje, incluidas las zonas urbanas, sobre todo a través de la elección de especies plantadas por la administración pública o por particulares. En efecto, los árboles elegidos pueden limitar o, por el contrario, favorecer la expansión de organismos nocivos.

Actualización: 08/06/2017
Publicación: 15/07/2015

Para entender la dinámica de los bioagresores forestales es necesario superar el marco estricto de los bosques para incorporar otros compartimentos del paisaje (parcelas agrícolas, zonas urbanas, etc.). De este modo, los investigadores del INRA estudiaron una parcela de 484 km2 situada en una zona de grandes cultivos del norte de La Beauce, donde realizaron un exhaustivo inventario y elaboraron la cartografía de todos los árboles huéspedes de la procesionaria del pino (pinos, cedros, abetos de Douglas). Posteriormente, diseñaron un modelo capaz de simular la distribución de dichos árboles en paisajes similares a gran escala.

La extensión de los resultados obtenidos en la región Centre-Val de Loire al conjunto de La Beauce (5 000 km2) muestra que los hábitats favorables a la procesionaria del pino en las regiones no forestales son bastante más numerosos de lo que podía imaginarse. Las ciudades, pueblos y aldeas conforman una red de árboles que cubren todo el territorio de forma regular, lo que explica que esta región, una de las menos forestales de Francia, no haya servido de barrera a la propagación de este insecto. Estos resultados demuestran la importancia de los árboles fuera de bosque, incluidos los ornamentales, en las continuidades ecológicas creadas respecto a algunas especies forestales. Cuestiones similares se plantean respecto a la circulación de insectos en el medio urbano y a la interconexión campo-ciudad, donde dichas continuidades ecológicas resultan de la elección de plantaciones por parte de múltiples agentes públicos y privados.
 
La toma en consideración de los árboles fuera de bosque permitirá una mejor comprensión de la dispersión de especies de plagas nativas o exóticas y, por ende, de determinadas invasiones biológicas.
 
* Algunas especies forestales se utilizan a menudo para plantaciones ornamentales y están muy presentes fuera de los bosques (por ejemplo, el pino negro, huésped de la procesionaria del pino).

Referencia
Rossi J.-P., Garcia J., Roques A., Rousselet J. Trees outside forests in agricultural landscapes: spatial distribution and impact on habitat connectivity for forest organisms. Landscape Ecology DOI: 10.1007/s10980-015-0239-8
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10980-015-0239-8

Contacto
Contacto científico:

Contacto de prensa:
Servicio de prensa del INRA (+33 (0) 1 42 75 91 86)
Departamento asociado:
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Forest, Grassland and Freshwater Ecology
Centro asociado:
Val de Loire, Montpellier

Más datos sobre la procesionaria del pino

La procesionaria del pino (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) es un insecto forestal en expansión progresiva del sur al norte de Francia debido al cambio climático. Coloniza el medio urbano a partir del compartimento forestal y plantea problemas fitosanitarios y de salud pública dado que sus larvas son urticantes. Las orugas consumen las agujas de diferentes especies de coníferas (pinos, cedros, abeto de Douglas) y, sobre todo, de especies muy extendidas como Pinus nigra, utilizado como especie forestal o como árbol ornamental en el medio urbano o rural.