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Viaje al centro de la célula vegetal: descifrar la organización intracelular en tres dimensiones

Descifrar los grandes principios de la organización de elementos biológicos en el interior de las células es esencial para comprender mejor los procesos intracelulares y su regulación. Por primera vez, investigadores del INRA y de la Universidad Pierre y Marie Curie (UPMC) proponen una estrategia y las herramientas informáticas asociadas con las que analizar el reparto en el espacio intracelular de los elementos biológicos como las vesículas o las proteínas. Han aplicado con éxito este método para estudiar la distribución de proteínas de interés dentro de células en la planta modelo Arabidopsis thaliana. Estos resultados han sido publicados en la reista «The Plant Journal».

Actualización: 08/06/2017
Publicación: 19/07/2016
Palabras clave: célula - organización

Imagínese el interior de una célula: núcleo, orgánulos, moléculas, etc. Todo bien organizado en ese pequeño espacio, aunque a veces esos elementos se redistribuyen por diferentes estímulos o un tráfico intracelular que transporta moléculas, por ejemplo, del lugar de producción al de actuación.
Dentro de una célula, la localización de una proteína en el espacio es un factor determinante para los procesos celulares. En mayor medida, conocer los grandes principios de la organización espacial del interior de las células y su regulación constituye una prueba real de la que se han servido los investigadores del INRA de Versalles-Grignon y de la UPMC. Hoy nos entregan los resultados.

Representación sintética de la organización intracelular en 3D...

Al utilizar un microscopio confocal, los científicos han producido imágenes en tres dimensiones de células epidérmicas de raíces de la planta modelo Arabidopsis thaliana. Estas imágenes constituyen series de parejas virtuales a través de las células, en las que aquellas permiten visualizar estructuras marcadas en fluorescente. Por primera vez, los investigadores han propuesto un conjunto de reglas operatorias y algoritmos con las que se pueden explotar estas imágenes estadísticamente y generar representaciones sintéticas medias de las células. Estas representaciones revelan la manera en que los elementos y compartimentos intracelulares se disponen en tres dimensiones.
Los investigadores también han creado un programa informático que integra estos algoritmos (free-d.versailles.inra.fr) y ponen sus avances a disposición de otros científicos que desean tratar sus propios datos.

... Cartografía espacial de la distribución de la proteína KORRIGAN1 implicada en la biosíntesis de la celulosis

Para ilustrar el potencial de este avance técnico, los investigadores lo han aplicado para analizar el reparto de una proteína interesante, KORRIGAN1, en células de epidermis radical de la planta A. thaliana. Esta proteína está implicada en la síntesis de la celulosis y se localiza en compartimentos vesiculares en estas células. Los investigadores han producido con éxito un mapa estadístico en tres dimensiones de la distribución de KORRIGAN1 en una célula epidérmica «media». Gracias a su método, han demostrado un gradiente en la distribución intracelular de KORRIGAN1: su densidad disminuye cuando atraviesa las células, desde el exterior hasta el interior de la raíz. Este reparto no se modifica cuando la planta está expuesta a inhibidores de la síntesis de celulosa, incluso cuando la cantidad de compartimentos celulares que contienen KORRIGAN1 está afectada por estos tratamientos.
Estas investigaciones proporcionan una estrategia de exploración de la organización intracelular apoyada por una capacidad de operar en las tres dimensiones liberándose fluctuaciones morfológicas individuales. Una vez verificadas aquí mediante el análisis de la distribución de una proteína interesante KORRIGAN1 en células epidérmicas de raíces vegetales, contribuyen en mayor medida a hacer de la imagen un dato cuantificable susceptible de analizarse en biología de manera estadística y a inscribir datos brutos en un proceso dinámico que pueda resultar en una modelización.

Contacto
Contacto científico:

  • Philippe Andrey (+33 (0) 1 30 83 31 62) Unidad Mixta de Investigación Instituto Jean-Pierre Bourgin (INRA, AgroParisTech, CNRS).
Contacto de prensa:
Servicio de Prensa del INRA (+33 (0) 1 42 75 91 86)
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Plant Biology and Breeding
Centro asociado:
Versailles-Grignon

REFERENCIA

Strategy and software for the statistical spatial analysis of 3D intra-cellular distributions. Biot, Eric; Crowell, Elizabeth; Burguet, Jasmine; Hofte, Herman; Vernhettes, Samantha; Andrey, Philippe. The Plant Journal. doi : 10.1111/tpj.13189, 8 de julio del año 2016.